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09:00 - 17:00
Amine experts training course

The amine treating training course presented by Amine Experts is internationally renowned for the practical knowledge that it imparts to attendees. More than 300 courses have been presented worldwide, from which 7000 engineers and operators have benefited.  The course will last one day and provides attendees with an understanding of the pivotal aspects of amine treating.
The Amine Treating course is a shortened version of the in-depth 5-day training that is offered annually in Canada, Asia, USA and Europe and will cover the following key topics:

1) The Principals of Amine Treating
2) Optimal Operating Conditions
3) Foaming and Solvent Losses
4) Heat Stable Salts and Degradation
5) Corrosions Mechanisms in Amine Systems
6) Reasons for Amine System Failure
7) Calculations

The goal of the course will be to orient attendees to amine systems, impart the knowledge needed to avoid common mistakes and equip them with the tools for basic field troubleshooting.

The course will be presented by Philip le Grange. Working for Amine Experts, Philip has performed troubleshooting, optimizing, commissioning and training worked on more than 50 amine systems across 23 countries. He has been in the oil and gas industry for 10 years and prior to consulting has worked in both Operating Engineer and Plant Designer roles for chemical solvent systems.

Please note the workshop is separately bookable at a cost of $795 per delegate

09:00 - 13:00
Sulphur recovery workshop

Workshop Overview
In sour gas processing, the sulphur plant itself is highly inter-dependent on upstream and downstream gas processing units such as acid gas removal (AGR) and enrichment (AGE), tail gas treating (TGT), and sour water stripping (SWS).  Experimenting with full-size production plants to improve understanding of process behaviour can be a career limiting learning process.  However, process simulators have become increasingly realistic.  With the availability of mass transfer rate based simulation of gas processing, and the recent introduction of a first principles based sulphur plant simulator, it is now possible to convert an entire gas treatment facility into a virtual plant.  Today, simulation allows real understanding to be gained by doing precisely what cannot be done in the plant—experimentation.  The workshop is designed to dissect and understand several broad aspects of modern sulphur recovery.

Workshop Objectives
The workshop is designed to help you gain more in-depth understanding of Claus-type SRUs and improve their performance through:
Studying feed preparation techniques in controlling H2S quality, hydrocarbons and NH3 content,
Controlling combustion air and understand the importance of the air demand analyser,
Evaluating how tail gas clean-up directly affects SRU performance, and 
Understanding the kinetics of thermal reactions in the furnace and WHB, optimising catalytic converters, sizing and rating sulphur condensers, and dealing with sulphur storage, handing and degassing.

Who Should Attend
The workshop is intended for
Engineers relatively new to gas treating and sulphur recovery
Technical managers and engineers engaged in plant design, production, troubleshooting and revamps of process units in acid gas removal and sulphur production
Process equipment suppliers, particularly of towers used in gas treating and catalyst vendors

Workshop Contents
A one-half day, hands-on workshop using process simulation software and covering the topics:
Thermal Reaction: contaminant destruction (NH3, BTEX, hydrocarbons); the evil step cousins – CS2, COS, and trace sulphur; oxygen enrichment; Waste Heat Boiler recombination reactions and heat flux implications
Sulphur Condensers: equipment design & rating; H2S/H2SX/SO2 solubility; entrainment
Catalytic Conversion: optimal operating temperature; catalyst selection; COS/CS2 conversion vs. Claus reaction; modelling SOR vs. EOR conditions
Sulphur Storage, Handling, and Degassing: sulphur viscosity, product quality, H2S degassing 
Tail Gas Clean-up: effect of NH3 and SO2 on quench column and amine system performance;        EOR design and operation considerations
A limited number of laptop computers will be provided, restricting the hands-on aspect of the workshop to a maximum of 20 participants.  If you wish to use your own computer, an evaluation copy of ProTreat? software must be installed before the workshop—please contact conferences@crugroup.com before the workshop to arrange this.

14:00 - 17:30
SRU Burner workshop

Workshop overview
In this workshop we will focus in on the burners in the sulphur recovery unit (SRU). We will discuss the key aspects with regard to the design and operation of the SRU main and incinerator burners. Specific attention during this training will be given to the refractory design and pyrometers, since high processing temperatures play a critical role in these combustion sections.

This training will have a practical approach and is mainly intended for plant operators and other disciplines who are frequently involved in the operation of SRU’s. 

Workshop Contents
SRU burners in gas plants (by Duiker Combustion Engineers)
Why a well mixing main burner so important for my SRU
Design and operational aspects of SRU Tail Gas Incinerator burners

Refractory linings in SRU units (by Gouda Refractories)
Starting points of the refractory design 
Refractory material selection 
Special points off attention in order to make the refractory lining more robust 
Failure mechanisms in refractory systems in reaction furnaces 

Pyrometers on main reaction furnaces (by Lumasense)
Why temperature measurement inside your reaction furnace is important 
How to measure temperature 
Dos and don´ts for IR-temperature measurements 

SRU burners (by Duiker Combustion Engineers)
Safety and reliability of electrical spark igniters
How to reliably detect a flame

This workshop will be jointly presented by three companies: Duiker Combustion Engineers, Gouda Refractories and Lumasense. Representing Duiker Combustion Engineers Mr. Roelof ten Hooven and Mr. Dennis van de Giessen in their roles as technical sales consultants have both been working on many projects across the America’s, China and the Middle East in the sulphur recovery industry. The refractory topic will be presented by Mr. Peter Plaizier. He has been with Gouda Refractories for more than 20 years and is their technical consultant for oil and gas projects. He has been advising the SRU industry for many years. Mr. Joerg Roessler is technical sales consultant for Lumasense and has trained many operators in the field about how to operate their pyrometers.    

09:00 - 10:30
Keynote opening session

09:00 - 09:20
Opening presentation and welcome address
Speaker to be confirmed
09:20 - 10:00
CRU global sulphur outlook
Global supply outlook to 2022: Has the risk of long lived sulphur surpluses already passed?
- How has the lower for longer oil price environment influenced investment in future sulphur producing projects?
- What impact has fertilizer market oversupply had on sulphur demand?
- What are the key drivers of sulphur prices over the coming years?
Dr Peter Harrisson, Sulphur Team Leader, CRU
10:00 - 10:30
How are global sulphur market prices set?
- Overview of global sulphur market with focus on pricing structure (contract/spot split)
- Development of markets and triggers for changes in pricing mechanisms
- CRU price assessment approach – the importance of methodology
Brendan Daly, Markets Editor, CRU

11:00 - 12:15
Plenary session: Overview of key demand markets

11:00 - 11:30
CRU Phosphate outlook
- What are the short-term demand factors currently shaping the phosphates market?
- How is increasing phosphate fertilizer capacity, and subsequent pressure on prices impacting future sulphur demand?
- Overview of demand growth in SE Asia and China
- Overview of phosphate projects and timelines
Alex Derricott, Analyst, CRU
11:30 - 12:15
Spotlight on the Chinese sulphur market: The TGO Consortium
- Overview of member companies and why and how the consortium was formed 
- Overview on operations 
- How the consortium will work with sulphur markets
David Wang, Director, TGO

13:45 - 15:15
Commercial stream: Supporting innovation and research into alternative uses of sulphur

13:45 - 14:15
Market opportunities for sulphur enhanced fertilizers
- What are the drivers of demand for sulphur as a fertilizer?
- Which markets have the greatest demand potential for sulphur containing fertilizers?
- How has demand for sulphur containing fertilizers developed
Nick Waters, Consultant, CRU
14:15 - 14:45
Innovations with sulphur enhanced fertilizers – Creating sustainable solutions for the oil and gas industry and a growing population
- How Shell are using our know-how, technology and innovation to help deliver more and cleaner energy for a growing and prospering population
- Why do Shell innovate in the Sulphur space?
- How does Shell Thiogro provide a solution to both the sulphur industry and global challenges?
- How has Shell Sulphur Solutions continued to develop and progress our Shell Thiogro technologies?
Cyrille Allais, Business Development Manager - Sulphur & Ventures, Shell
14:45 - 15:15
Special focus: Research & development initiatives in the sulphur industry
This presentation will provide an overview of the work Alberta Sulphur Research Limited (ASRL) conduct in the sulphur industry.
Paul Davis, General Manager, ASRL

13:45 - 15:15
Technical stream: Acid Gas and gas processing options

13:45 - 14:15
Sour gas fields in the Caspian Region: selection the design of development
There is a number of huge oil and gas fields containing hydrogen sulfide in the Caspian Region. These are Astrakhan, Karachaganak, Tengiz and Kashagan in the Northern Caspian, where the gas is contained in the Paleozoic deposits. In the Middle Caspian oil and gas fields have been discovered in the Caspian sea and adjacent land areas to the West and East in the Upper Jurassic sediments. Excess sulfur production leads to the necessity of choosing other options for field development without the sulphur recovery. Reinjected acid gas after separation from the condensate and hydrocarbon gases may become an alternative to the standard approach in the development of these fields. Geological and technological problems are discussed.
Leonid Anisimov, Lukoil
14:15 - 14:45
Acid gas enrichment – new wrinkles on an old process
Sour gases containing low concentrations of H2S can be particularly troublesome and costly to process in conventional sulphur recovery units (SRUs). Unlike refineries, which routinely operate with 70-90% or higher H2S in the acid gas feeds, sulphur plants in natural gas service often see much lower H2S concentrations. A myriad of problems have been reported through the years with lower H2S feeds, some of which include flame stability and the associated susceptibility of the SRU to contaminants (NH3, hydrocarbons, BTEX) which can lead to operability and reliability concerns, increased operating cost (feed preheat, oxygen enrichment, natural gas co-firing), and difficulty in design.

The technique of “enriching” the acid gas, or Acid Gas Enrichment (AGE), overcomes some of these problems, usually at the expense of additional operating equipment and complexity. However, there are innovative plant line-ups which can leverage AGE benefits, while also optimizing capital expenditure and operating costs.  Unique AGE configurations can be utilized to achieve economical, robust operation in grassroots facilities, or can be employed in existing facilities that are required to meet new, lower SO2 regulations.    

In this work, we briefly review the more common AGE configurations and also more closely examine several unique AGE line-ups from a techno-economic perspective. By understanding  the basic operating parameters that affect selectivity through mass transfer rate-based simulation, several selectivity improvement opportunities that have been previously unpublished are evaluated. One of the techniques evaluated can be applied to existing operating plants without additional capital.
Angie Slavens, UniverSUL Consulting;
Simon Weiland, Optimised Gas Treating
14:45 - 15:15
Options screening drives innovation for Shell's upstream gas processing technology portfolio
Most mega sour projects are built on a lump-sum EPC basis, this paper highlights the importance of providing a sound engineering basis during the Pre-FEED/FEED phase, thereby providing cost effective alternatives and shorter schedules of the project without compromising on the quality, safety, reliability of mega sour gas processing facilities.

This paper highlights the importance of technology evaluation at early stages, how to approach designing large sour gas projects and the benefit to clients from consultancy knowledge and expertise on designing mega sour gas processing plants.

Petrofac was invited by SGS to provide an industry view for design line up for sour gas processing facilities. This study was focused on identifying solutions by Petrofac to understand an external viewpoint of technology deployed for sour gas processing.

This study explored various process line-up’s and the intent was to deploy the right technology for the given application (cases) not only those that are technically quite challenging but also what is normally considered as a standard line- up for sour gas processing plants.

Gaining a clear insight of the process line-up’s available and the relative value that each generates is the heart at solving this problem, however not all options are same.

The challenge to address the cost of sour gas project development is an on-going effort and Petrofac has been at the forefront of cost reduction and implementing these projects that makes Petrofac a leader in the sour gas processing arena.

Petrofac provided SGS the recommendation of the study which has added value to Shell’s Upstream gas processing technology portfolio and has been deployed for its future technology development, specifically the latest Shell ADIP-Ultra technology.
Lorraine Fitzwater,  Petrofac

15:45 - 16:15
Technical stream: Ensuring robust operations

15:45 - 16:15
Systemic approach to improving amine fluid quality: A case study
Contamination in amine treating systems is endemic in the industry, and unless properly managed can affect treating capacities, operating costs and equipment reliability.  Typical contaminants include hydrocarbon aerosols entering the systems with the sour gas, hydrocarbon build up within the recirculating amine system, particulate contamination entering and being formed in the amine system, and amine degradation products.  

A large US Gulf coast refinery tail gas unit was faced with very high filtration change-out frequency on their rich amine system.  Effective determination of particulate contamination in a rich amine system is complicated by the propensity of the rich amine to oxidize in the presence of air, thereby making off-line bottle-sample analyses unreliable.  A suitable analytical technique was used to obtain reliable particle sampling of the rich amine system.  Following extensive analytical work, a number of different separation media configurations were evaluated resulting in an 8-15 fold reduction in change-out frequency, and an approximately 70% reduction in operating cost, while improving the fluid quality of the amine system.  By the end, the particulate contamination in the recirculating amine had declined from 4-8 mg/lit to non-detectable.  

The presentation will discuss the analytical techniques used, as well as the systematic testing program undertaken, along with a best-practices finding.
Matt Thundyil, Transcend Solutions
16:15 - 16:45
Preventing hydrocarbon carryover into the sulphur plant
It is understood the sulfur plant is a necessary component in refinery operations with a sour crude slate.  The sulfur plant enables the refinery to sell a sulfur and reduce emissions to comply with national, state and local regulations.. Hydrocarbons, such as methanol, BTEX and others have different flash points and BTU values other than the normal fuel gas. The burner in the sulfur plant requires a certain BTU range in order to burn efficiently. Poor burning of the acid gas can result in the emissions going off spec. Also, the sulfur produced from the sulfur plant must meet a color spectrum specification in order to be sold at market prices. Hydrocarbon discolors that as well and will reduce the market price of the sulfur. Thus hydrocarbon carryover into the sulfur plant becomes a serious concern. The source of the hydrocarbon carryover is almost exclusively from the amine treater. The sour water stripper mostly provides the sour gas and carries very little hydrcarbon to the sulfur plant

 Since amine is derived from hydrocarbon, amine also has a high affinity for absorbing hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon that accumulates within amine treatment plants depend on the feed stock and how the amine system is configured in the flow scheme of the refinery. In our experience there could be lubrication oils from compressors, methanol from upstream processes and also included are light hydrocarbons, BTEX, and paraffins all coming from the gas feed.

The hydrocarbons that end up accumulating in the amine treater cause all sorts of interesting problems

Hydrocarbons cause foaming, burping and other upset conditions in the amine treater. The upset condition in the amine plant consequently causes amine and its absorbed hydrocarbon to be whisked away with the sour gas stream from the top of the regeneration tower in the amine system.  Hydrocarbon in the amine system is bad for the sulfur plant and the amine plant.
John Sczesny, MPR Services

16:00 - 17:15
Commercial stream: Supporting innovation and research into alternative uses of sulphur

16:00 - 16:45
The Masdar "solar sulphur" project
16:45 - 17:15
An overview of ASRL's support into sulphur research

08:30 - 10:30
Interactive roundtable discussion: Mespon revisited

This interactive roundtable discussion will include an open format question and answer session in addition to perspectives on operational challenges and potential solutions from operators, licensors, designers, innovators and vendors. Subject areas will include:
Gas gathering, sour gas injection & acid gas injection
Acid gas removal & acid gas enrichment
Sulphur recovery & tail gas treating (including O2 enrichment)
Sulphur degassing & molten/solid sulphur handling
Moderated by Angie Slavens, UniverSUL Consulting
Additional panelists to be confirmed 

11:00 - 12:30
Technical programme: Effective emissions management and tail gas treating options

11:00 - 11:30
SCOT ULTRA – Staying ahead of the curve with tail gas treating
Dr Lydia Singoredjo, Shell 
11:30 - 12:00
Efficiently reducing SO2 emissions on a smaller plot: A case study of MECS DynaWave technology at CPC Corporation, Taiwan
Increasingly stringent SO2 emission regulations around the world mean refiners not only have to ensure their sulfur recovery units (SRUs) comply with requirements, but also need to find a solution that minimizes capital expenditure, maintenance costs and operator involvement. A typical approach has been to use a highly efficient amine-based tail gas treatment unit (TGTU) downstream of the Claus plant.
Today, an alternative configuration has been proven to add reliability to the overall Claus plant, especially in terms of emissions during emergency shutdowns and startups.  Installing a highly flexible reverse jet scrubber between incinerator and stack makes it possible to operate a more cost-effective TGTU (such as a direct oxidation or sub-dewpoint process). This solution efficiently reduces sulfurous emissions on a smaller than usual plot space at a lower investment cost. When combined with the unique flexibility of the MECS® DynaWave® technology, this approach ensures emission control at all times, even during bypass of the TGTU or entire Claus plant.

This presentation will discuss the reasons for and results from an installation of such a sulfur removal system by the state-owned CPC Corporation, Taiwan at its Ta-Lin refinery.
12:00 - 12:30
Lower sulphur emissions from refinery tail gas systems using improved solvents, field demonstration results
Improvements in air quality require reductions in sulfur emissions from industrial facilities. Removal of residual hydrogen sulfide from low pressure sulfur plant tail gas has proved challenging at elevated lean amine or ambient temperatures. Dow has developed and successfully demonstrated a new formulated solvent with a novel molecule that improves H2S removal performance. When compared to commodity MDEA this new series of specialty solvents, UCARSOL™ TGT, offers economically competitive alternatives for reduction in sulfur emissions in high temperature environments.

The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) and the China National Offshore Oilfield Company Huizhou Refinery Branch (CNOOC Huizhou) successfully performed a joint effort to evaluate the performance of a new series of Dow solvents, UCARSOL™ TGT, in a tail gas treater operated by CNOOC Huizhou in Guangdong, China. Air quality specifications are becoming more stringent in China and CNOOC Huizhou is taking proactive steps to meet the new SO2 emissions requirements. Currently Chinese SO2 emissions are limited to 960 mg/Nm3, but will be reduced to 100 mg/Nm3 July 2017.

The new solvent from Dow enabled achieving SO2 emissions less than 100 mg/Nm3, with no capital expense.
Jan Lambrichts, Sr. Technical Service Engineer , The Dow Chemical Company

13:30 - 15:00
Technical programme: Effective emissions management and tail gas treating options (continued)

13:30 - 14:00
Revamping of a 50MTD Claus plan with S-Plus process to reach ultra-low SO2 emission requirements
S-Plus is a combined process with typical Claus and a unique tail gas treatment which is call DSR, short for “Desulfuriation and SO2 Recovery”. In 2017, a 50 MTD Claus unit was revamped with S-Plus process and has been put into operation. It is demonstrated that this combined S-Plus process has outstanding efficiency for sulphur recovery (up to 99.95%) and ultra-low SO2 final emission (<50mg/Nm3). 
The key of DSR process is a kind of unique absorbent which shows extraordinary selectivity and absorbing ability to SO2. It works under low temperature (40-60 oC) to absorb SO2 and desorbs SO2 under high temperature (105-120 oC) as regenerated, which forms a circulation. The released SO2 can be sent back to Claus unit to produce Sulphur. 
In this paper, the detailed principle and process of S-Plus technology is illustrated and the design essentials and operational data of a 50 MTD revamped unit is also given, which provides new technical solutions and design reference for updating, capacity revamping or grass-root construction of Claus unit to reach ultra-low emission standard. 
Yanchao Jiao, Keyon Process

14:00 - 14:30
The benefit of using titania in Claus and tail gas catalysis
It is well known that, from the available Claus catalysts, titanium oxide provides the highest activity in COS and CS2 hydrolysis. However, when there is no direct requirement for the additional activity, the cheaper activated alumina catalyst is often preferred.  Most of the time, the titianium oxide catalyst is only applied as a bottom layer in the first reactor. Besides the clear benefits of using titania in the Claus section of the SRU, a titania-based catalyst in the tail-gas treating unit improves the performance at end-of-run compared to alumina-based catalyst. In addition, titania has proven to provide other operational benefits such as low mercaptans formation, higher oxygen resistance and easier (re)sulfiding. In this presentation Euro Support and Criterion use their combined knowledge to explore the benefits that the titanium catalyst offers in the Claus process covering some practical cases that are met in the field. We will elaborate on the advantages that titania catalyst offers when dealing with different conditions, e.g. non-typical Claus gasses, short lifetime, strict emission demands.
Bob Van de Giessen; Bart Hereijgers, Euro Support
14:30 - 15:00
Operation of quench towers as it pertains to SO2 breakthrough
Reducing tail gas units are commonly used in sulfur recovery units (SRU) for tail gas cleanup around the world. High sulfur recovery (99.9%) can be achieved by reducing all the remaining sulfur species to H2S, which enters an amine unit, and can be recycled back to the Claus furnace. However, before the gases enter the amine unit, a quench tower is used to cool the gas mixture and reduce the water content so as not to dilute the alkanolamine in the amine unit. 
Another important role of the quench tower, albeit indirectly, is to mitigate an SO2 breakthrough (from the reactor) during upset conditions. Incomplete reduction of SO2 could have significant effects on the amine unit due to the consumption of alkonaolamine by formation of heat stable amine salts, thus, reducing capacity for capturing H2S. Careful operation of the quench tower can mitigate the effects of an SO2 breakthrough, depending on the operating pH, species contained in the gas feed and in the quench water.
In this paper, we present experimental results on the influence of quench water pH on SO2 breakthrough (out of the quench tower) and the potential for sulfur formation via the aqua-Claus reaction. Normal operating pH varies, depending on the presence (pH ~ 8) or absence (pH ~ 6) of ammonia (NH3), as it relates to refineries and gas plants respectively. We report that, in the absence of NH3, breakthrough occurred as soon as SO2 was introduced. In contrast, when the quench water contained NH3, high SO2 uptake was observed due to the buffering capacity of ammonia, allowing SO2 to react and remain in the quench water. In both cases, a large pH change (Δ pH = 4) was observed after simulating “upset” conditions, yet SO2 breakthrough was significantly delayed when ammonia was present. This observation suggests that a pH change alone cannot be used to predict breakthrough from the quench tower. However, it is indicative of SO2 entering the quench tower.
Furthermore, we discuss the effect of sulfur formation as it pertains to SO2 breakthrough. Our results show that SO2 breakthrough is dependant on the concentration of H2S contained in the gas feed due to some SO2 being consumed via the aqua-Claus reaction, albeit with the formation of elemental sulfur.
Rohen Prinsloo, Alberta Sulphur Research Limited (ASRL)

15:30 - 17:30
Ensuring safe reliable operations across pipelines, degassing, forming & handling

15:30 - 16:00
The new way to increase plant safety, reliability and availability by "Experiential Learning"

KT - Kinetics Technology and SE - Schneider Electrics in collaboration with EniProgetti are developing a totally new Enhanced Operating Manual (EOM) for Sulphur Recovery Plant serving the sour gas processing facilities of one of the major gas fields discovered in the Mediterranean Sea. 
The new EOM has the merit to be an innovative system able to collect in one single tool all EniProgetti standards for design, engineering and construction and all KT know-how, experience, expertise, lessons learnt and project documentation for the licensed and engineered SRU.

The new EOM, based on Schneider Electric EYESIM technology, is an immersive photorealistic training environment for Field Operators, Control Room Operators and Maintenance Team able to improve their ability to increase safety, reliability and availability of the plant. The innovative system creates an effective connection between DCS Operators, Field Operators, Plant Engineers and Licensor, all together focalised to the achievement of Excellence in Plant Operation and Zero Accidents. 

Thanks to the interactive 3D environment linked to a dynamic process model and the plant control emulation, the EOM permits an “Experiential Learning” as well as easy refreshment of any specific operating procedures in repeatable structured and safe environmental. 

Operators learn how to run a plant in a safe and more efficient manner in all possible plant scenarios like as: normal operation, start-up, shut-down and “real” operating scenarios identified as critical by Licensor including also un-safe potential situations while reducing the risk of human errors, equipment failure or damage and process downtime without disrupting the plant operation. 

The new EOM enables operator to learn the functionality of the process control system and how to asset it without the pressure of jeopardizing the plant, the environment and the plant personnel safety thanks to the high fidelity of the dynamic process simulator allowing replication of realistic plant response to every actions.

The new EOM guarantees a full understanding of all plant procedures, enhances operator performances and knowledge transfer. It is a very efficacious tool to train the new generations of plant workforce who learn very differently to the older workforce and to bring the existing experience operators to practice continuously safety and operational procedure that are not execute with regular frequency.

In the paper will be analysed also how this new tool will provide savings in job training, Maintenance activities as well as Start-up Efficiency and increased plant performances.

Michele Colozzi; Simona Cortese, KT Kinetics Technology SpA
Tiziana Paolicelli; Maurizio Galardo, SE – Schneider Electrics
Gaetano De Santis, EniProgetti

16:00 - 16:30
Thermally isolated pipe support anchors: Specialised anchor improvements for sulphur pipelines
To optimize a pipeline Heat Management System for critical services like molten Sulphur, a homogenous thermal profile is absolutely essential for dependable performance. Firstly, this requires a high-integrity and consistent pipeline insulation system. Secondly, it is imperative that any additional metal appurtenances in contact with the pipe wall are eliminated or minimized. Metal-to-metal contact represents an opportunity for unwanted heat loss, and is commonly known as a “heat sink”. Heat sinks can cause plugging of Sulphur pipelines, typically at valve, pipe support and anchor support locations. Anchor supports specifically, represent an opportunity for large thermal energy losses due to their mass and thermal conduction of heat from the pipeline service through the steel base frame and directional stops. This paper reviews both the historical and new emerging designs of pipe anchors for use on Sulphur pipelines.

This analysis of Sulphur pipeline anchors considers new design types, enhanced insulation design, frame design, bolting and welding methods, FEA modeling, temperature measurement and supplemental heating. Field case study results, (including the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) data from fiber optic temperature monitoring at anchor locations), are compared and analyzed to understand the heat sink effect of these anchors on a Sulphur pipeline.

The ability to engineer and install “thermally isolated” pipe anchor supports is vital to maintain a homogeneous thermal profile along the pipeline. Using sophisticated thermal Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modeling, new design approaches for pipeline anchors are being introduced which largely eliminate the heat sink effect on a pipeline. This advancement is paramount in the evolution of the next generation of pipeline anchors for Sulphur pipelines.
Don Champion; Gustavo Saldarriaga, Pentair Thermal Management
Joe Donoghue, Rilco Manufacturing Co.
16:30 - 17:00
Installation of liquid sulphur degassing processes in existing SRU's
Over the last 35 years more companies worldwide have installed liquid sulfur degassing processes in their Sulfur Recovery Units (SRUs) to minimize the dangers of the release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from the produced elemental sulfur.  The release of H2S from liquid sulfur can and has resulted in explosions in sulfur pits and sulfur storage tanks due to high concentrations of H2S in the air above the liquid sulfur. In addition the H2S has also resulted in dangerous situations during the loading and transportation of sulfur due to the lethal nature of this gas.

Although there has been evidence of several explosions and fires in sulfur tanks and sulfur pits in the United States in recent years, the installation of liquid sulfur degassing is still not prevalent in both existing and new SRUs. In Canada and many other countries around the world, there are limitations on the allowable H2S concentration in transported liquid sulfur via rail and truck, which originated in the 1980s from an agreement between the sulfur producers, transporters and the sulfur terminals at Port Moody and North Vancouver due to odour complaints. To comply with this agreement, liquid sulfur degassing was installed in most Canadian facilities. The focus on safety in the petrochemical industry has become of highest importance over the past 10 years and inevitably degassing of liquid sulfur needs to get more focus. Liquid sulfur is one of the most transported hazardous materials in North America and there is a belief that most of the SRUs in the United States will have to be retrofitted with liquid sulfur degassing in the near future.

In this paper and presentation the need of degassing and different options and technologies to install liquid sulfur degassing in existing plants, with the objective to minimize operations interruption, are discussed. This will include examples of how to modularize the technology to be able to install a skid-mounted unit.
Mike Smeltink, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions
17:00 - 17:30
Sulphur pastillation and handling: A complete solution for a huge grassroot petroleum refinery in Nigeria
Sandvik Process Systems is to supply the complete sulphur pastillation and handling package – including downstream conveying, storage and loading facilities – for the huge Dangote Lekki Refinery project currently under construction in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Ulrich Nanz, Sales & Marketing Director, Sandvik 
With a projected capacity of 650,000 barrels a day, the multi-billion dollar Dangote refinery will be the largest in Africa and is scheduled for completion by the end of 2018. Dangote Industries Limited is a privately owned, Nigerian company and one of the most diversified business conglomerates in Africa.

Sandvik’s responsibilities include the design, engineering, assembly, integration and service supervision of the sulphur pastillation and handling package.  This covers every aspect from receipt of the molten sulphur after extraction via the Claus process, to loading systems. 

Upstream equipment comprises of sulphur pumps, duplex filter, Sandvik ProCool system, piping and instrumentation. The ProCool is used to reduce the temperature of the molten sulphur to 125-130 °C, resulting in a viscosity of between 10-15 mPa for optimum pastille quality. 

The cooled sulphur will then be solidified on two Sandvik Rotoform HS (High Speed) pastillation units. Operating capacity across the two units is 15 TPH and Sandvik will supply the exhaust system and all necessary accessories.

Once solidified, the sulphur pastilles will be discharged onto a common collecting belt conveyor. Other downstream equipment to be supplied by Sandvik includes an inclined conveyor with all related structure, and a reversible conveyor feeding two storage silos, each with a capacity of 280 MT. 

The company is also supplying an automatic bagging system for 50 kg bags complete with pre-weighers, metal detection and automatic closing, and an automatic telescopic truck loading system with level sensors to reduce drop distance.

All loading systems are equipped with chutes designed to deposit materials wit the minimum amount of dust generation.

Indian state-owned engineering company Engineers India Ltd (EIL) is providing engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) services for the refinery and petrochemical complex.